language.pdf

Introduction

This is the pdf/printer friendly version of Language1, a page of the ens.wiki2.
The ens.wiki is a free and online affordance-centric3 reference on concepts4 in their context5 which is edited by Jan Goossenaerts6,7.

Most links can't be accessed from the pdf version.

When online, visit the original Language page1 for a better reading experience.



If one knows their mother tongue and then adds other languages to it, that is empowerment

Ngugi wa Thiong'o (Distinguished Kenyan Professor and Novelist) explains (cited at Ekegusii Online dictionary and encyclopedia): One of the roots of our problem in Kenya and Africa; is that we begin our education by alienating a child from the language of their everyday culture, their mother tongue. An education system that is founded on a negative conception of self is seriously flawed. It’s an education that aims at producing educated slaves.
If one learns all the languages of the world and does not know their mother tongue, that is enslavement. But if one knows their mother tongue and then adds all the other languages to it, that is empowerment.8
A Gusii child should know and master Gusii language very well; then she or he should add Kiswahili to it, master it as well as EkeGusii. Then add to these two English and master it as well. The result will be an empowered Gusii.9
Keeping in mind the central transformative promise of the #2030Agenda for Sustainable DevelopmentLeaving no one behind- #unsdcf018Equal empowerment of all people through respect for all languages must be major drivers of a Platform for sharing digital public goods!

Delivering on the promise of #LeavingNoOneBehind to a person becomes harder when that person's mother tongue has fewer native speakers. Yet only when we recognize these barriers (constraints), we can develop the digital skills, attitudes and platforms to overcome them cooperatively: Global Digital Cooperation - #digicoop5a.


The table below lists the languages with the biggest challenges first10.

Languages with 100,000 to 500,000 native speakers


Languages with 500,000 to 1 million native and second language speakers


Languages with 1 to 5 million native and second language speakers

  • Acholi (1.5 million) Uganda, South Sudan
  • Afar (2 million) Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia
  • Alur (1.7 million) Congo, Dem. Rep., Uganda
  • Ateso (1.9 million) Kenya, Uganda
  • Avaric (1 million) Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Turkey
  • Aymara (1.7 million) Bolivia, Peru, Chile
  • Balinese (3.3 million) Indonesia
  • Bashkir (1.2 million) Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Estonia
  • Basque (750,000, 1,180,000 passive speakers) Spain, France
  • Beja (1-2.2 million) Sudan, Eritrea, Egypt
  • Bemba (4.1 million) Zambia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania
  • Central Bikol (2.5 million) Philippines
  • Bini (1.6 million) Nigeria
  • Bosnian (3 million) Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, Albania, Turkey
  • Brahui (4 million) Pakistan
  • Braj (1.6 million) India
  • Buginese (4 million) Indonesia
  • Bukusu (1.4 million) Kenya
  • Catalan (4.1 million) Spain, France, Italy
  • Chechen (1.4 million) Russia
  • ChiNdau (1.4 million) Mozambique, Zimbabwe
  • Chinkhonde (1.4 million) Tanzania, Malawi
  • ChiTonga (1.5 million) Zambia, Zimbabwe
  • Tumbuka (1.5 million) Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia
  • Cisena (1.5 million) Mozambique
  • Yao (3 million) Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania
  • Dagaare (1.1 million) Ghana, Burkina Faso
  • Dagbani (1.2 million) Ghana
  • Dangaura Tharu (1.5 million) Nepal
  • Dholuo (4.2 million) Kenya, Tanzania
  • Dinka (1.3 million) Sudan, South Sudan
  • Zarma (3.6 million) Niger
  • Efik (400,000 native and 2 million L2) Nigeria
  • Gusii (2.2 million) Kenya
  • Malawi Lomwe (2.29 million) Malawi
  • Elomwe (1.85 million) Mozambique
  • Estonian (1.1 million) Estonia
  • Fang (1 million) Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Cameroon, São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Fante (2.7 million) Ghana
  • Fon (2.2 million) Benin, Nigeria, Togo
  • Galician (2.4 million) Spain, Portugal
  • Georgian (3.7 million) Georgia, Russian, USA, Israel, Ukraine, Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan
  • Gondi (2.98 million) India
  • Gorontalo (1 million) Indonesia
  • Guarani (4.85 million) Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina, Brazil
  • Hadiyya (1.3 million) Ethiopia
  • Hmong (3.7 million) China, Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand
  • Iban (790,000 million, 700,000 L2) Malaysiaa, Indonesia, Brunei
  • Ibibio (2 million) Nigeria
  • Igala (1 million) Nigeria
  • IsiNdebele (1.1 million) Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Olukabarasi (? million) Kenya
  • Kamba (3.9 million) Kenya, Tanzania
  • Lukenye (3.1 million) Uganda
  • Khasi (1 million) India, Bangladesh
  • Rukiga (1.6 million) Uganda, Rwanda
  • KiGiryama (1.9 million) Kenya, Tanzania
  • Kimbundu (2.1 million) Angola
  • Kîmîîrû (2 million) Kenya
  • Konkani (2.3 million) India
  • Kpelle (1.3 million) Guinea, Liberia
  • Kurukh (2.3 million) India, Bangladesh
  • Kyrgyz (4.3 million) Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, China, Tajikistan, Russia, Pakistan
  • Leblango (2.1 million) Uganda
  • Latvian (1.75 million) Latvia
  • Lithuanian (3 million) Lithuania
  • Lugbarati (2.4 million) Uganda, Congo, Dem. Rep.
  • Lumasaaba (2.7 million) Uganda
  • Lusoga (3.1 million) Uganda
  • Masai (1.5 million) Kenya, Tanzania
  • Macedonian (1.5-3.5 million) Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia
  • Makasar (2.8 million) Indonesia
  • Mende (1.5 million) Sierra Leone, Liberia
  • Nahuatl (1.7 million) Canada, Mexico, United States
  • Nuer (2.8 million) South Sudan, Ethiopia
  • Tok Pisin (4 million L2) Papua New Guinea
  • Ng'aturkana (1.013 million) Kenya
  • Nyankole (3.4 million) Uganda
  • Northern Sotho (4.7 million) South Africa
  • Nyamwezi (1.5 million) Tanzania
  • Olunyaneka (1.2 million) Angola
  • Pangasinan (1.2 million) Philippines
  • Sango (450,000, 1.6 million L2) Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Dem. Rep.
  • Sanskrit (2.4 million) India
  • Sardinian (1.3 million) Italy
  • Sasak (2.7 million) Indonesia
  • Serer (1.4 million) Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania
  • Shan (3.3 million) Myanmar, Thailand, China
  • Sicilian (4.7 million) Italy
  • Sidamo (3 million) Ethiopia
  • SiSwati (2.3 million, 2.4 million L2) Eswatini, Lesotho, South Africa, Mozambique
  • Slovenian (2.5 million) Slovenia, Italy, Austria
  • Soninke (2.1 million) Mali, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ghana
  • Timne (2.5 million) Guinea, Sierra Leone
  • Tibetan (1.2 million) China, Nepal, India
  • Tigre (250,000 - 1.05 million) Eritrea
  • Venda (1.3 million) South Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Xitswa (1.2 million) Mozambique
  • Urhobo (2 million) Nigeria
  • Walamo (1.6 million) Ethiopia
  • Yiddish (1.5 million) Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Germany, Israel, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, Sweden, United Kingdom
  • Zande (1.15 million, 100,000 L2) Congo, Dem. Rep., Central African Republic, South Sudan
  • Zaza (1.6 million) Turkey

Languages with 5 to 25 million native and second language speakers

  • Akan (10.5 million) Ghana, Suriname
  • Afrikaans (17.2 million) Namibia, South Africa
  • Albanian (7.5 million) Albania, Kosovo, Greece, Italy, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia
  • Alemannic (7 million) Switzerland, Germany, Austria, France, Italy, United States, Venezuela
  • Amharic (22 million) Ethiopia
  • Armenian (6.7 million) Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijan)
  • Assamese (14.8 million) India
  • Azerbaijani (23 million) Azerbaijan, Iran, Russia, Turkey, Iraq, Georgia
  • Baluchi (7.6 million) Pakistan, Iran, afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan
  • Bambara (4.1 million, 10 million L2) Mali, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Senegal, The Gambia
  • Bulgarian (8 million) Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Turkey, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania
  • Cebuano (16 million) Philippines
  • Chichewa (12 million) Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique
  • Shona (15 million) Zimbabwe, Mozambique
  • Croatian (5.6 million) Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Romania
  • Czech (10.7 million) Czech Republic
  • Danish (6 million) Denmark, Germany, Greenland, Faroe Islands
  • Dari (20.5 million) Afghanistan
  • Dutch (24 million) The Netherlands, Belgium, Suriname
  • Dyula (6.8 million) Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali
  • Ewe (5 million) Ghana, Togo
  • Finnish (5.4 million) Finland, Sweden, Norway
  • Ga (8.5 million) Ghana
  • Luganda (8.5 million) Uganda
  • Gikuyu (6.6 million) Kenya
  • Greek (13.4 million) Greece, Cyprus, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Egypt, United States, United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Canada, Brazil, South Africa, Australia, Russia, Ukraine
  • Hebrew (5 million) Israel, West Bank and Gaza
  • Hiligaynon (9.3 million) Philippines
  • Hungarian (13 million) Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia , Slovenia, Ukraine
  • Ndebele North (5 million) Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Xhosa (8.2 million, 11 million L2) South Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Kabyle (6 million) Algeria
  • Kanuri (8.6 million) Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon
  • Karen (7 million) Myanmar, Thailand
  • Kashmiri (7 million) India, Pakistan
  • Kazakh (22 million) Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
  • Khmer (16 million) Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam
  • Kinyarwanda (9.8 million) Rwanda, Uganda, DR Congo, Tanzania
  • Kirundi (8.8 million) Burundi
  • Kongo (6.5 million) Congo, Dem. Rep., Congo, Rep., Angola
  • Madurese (6.7 million) Indonesia, Singapore
  • Magahi (20.7 million) India, Nepal
  • Makhuwa-Meetto (7.4 million) Mozambique, Tanzania
  • Marwari (7.8 million) India
  • Minangkabau (5.5 million) Indonesia
  • Mongolian (5.2 million) Mongolia, China
  • Mossi (7.83 million) Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Mali, Togo
  • Neapolitan (5.7 million) Italy
  • Northern Pashto (21 million) Pakistan, Afghanistan
  • Norwegian (5.32 million) Norway, Denmark
  • Quechua (8-10 million) Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Equador, Chile, Argentina
  • Serbian (8 million) Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, Croatia
  • Sesotho (5.6 million, 7.9 million L2) Lesotho, South Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Tswana (5.2 million, 7.7 million L2) Botswana, South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe
  • Sinhala (17 million) Sri Lanka
  • Slovak (5.2 million) Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine, Poland
  • Somali (16 million) Somalia, Djibouti, Somaliland, Kenya, Ethiopia
  • Southern Balochi (7.6 million) Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan
  • Southern Pashto (6 million) Afghanistan
  • Sukuma (8.1 million) Tanzania
  • Swedish (10 million, 3.2 million L2) Sweden, Finland, Estonia
  • Tajik (8.4 million) Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
  • Tatar (5.2 million) Russia
  • Tigrinya (9 million) Eritrea, Ethiopia
  • Tiv (7 million) Nigeria
  • Tsonga (12 million, 3.4 million L2) Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Tunisian (11.2 million) Tunisia
  • Turkmen (6.7 million) Turkmenistan, Russia, Iran, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria
  • Umbundu (9.5 million) Angola
  • Wolof (5.4 million) Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania
  • Zhuang (16 million) China

Languages with 25 to 125 million native and second language speakers

  • Oromo (34 million) Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia
  • Telugu (82 million) India
  • Indonesian (43 million) Indonesia
  • Bhojpuri (51 million) India, Nepal
  • Burmese (33 million) Burma, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia
  • Filipino (23.8 million, 45 million L2) Philippines
  • Fulah (65 million) Sahel region
  • German (95 million, 15 million L2) Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Luxembourg, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia
  • Gujarati (56 million) India, Pakistan, South Africa, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, USA, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius, Fiji, Canada, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Portugal, Panama
  • Hausa (80 million, 20 million L2) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Togo
  • Igbo (45 million) Nigeria
  • Zulu (12 million, 16 million L2) South Africa, Lesotho
  • Italian (67 million) Italy, Switzerland, Malta, Eritrea, Somalia, Libya, Slovenia, Croatia
  • Javanese (82 million) Indonesia, Malaysia, Suriname
  • Kannada (52 million, 13 million L2) India
  • Korean (77.2 million) North Korea, South Korea, China
  • Lao (30 million) Laos
  • Lingala (15 million, 25 million L2) Congo, Dem. Rep., Congo, Rep.
  • Maithili (30-35 million) India, Nepal
  • Malagasy (25 million) Madagascar, Comoros
  • Malay (77 million) Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Singapore, East Timor, Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Cocos Island, Christmas Island
  • Marathi (83 million, 12 million L2) India
  • Nepali (16 million, 9 million L2) Nepal, India, Bhutan, Myanmar
  • Nigerian Pidgin (30 million L1 and L2) Nigeria
  • Odia (35 million, 4 million L2) India
  • Polish (45 million) Poland, Germany, Czech Republic, Russia , Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus
  • Rajasthani (50 million) India, Pakistan
  • Romanian (24-26 million, 4 million L2) Romania, Moldova
  • Sindhi (38 million) Pakistan, India
  • Sundanese (40 million) Indonesia
  • Tamil (75 million) India, Sri Lanka
  • Telugu (82 million, 11 million L2) India
  • Thai (20-36 million, 44 million L2) Thailand, Cambodia
  • Uzbek (27 million) Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Russia, China
  • Vietnamese (90 million) Vietnam, China
  • Yoruba (45-55 million) Nigeria, Benin, Togo

Languages with over 125 million native and second language speakers

  • Arabic (310 million) Algeria, Bahrain, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Maurintania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen
  • Bengali (230 million, 37 million L2) Bangladesh, India
  • Chinese (1.2 billion) China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia
  • English (360-400 million, 750 million L2) Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Comoros, Belize, Botswana, Cameroon, Canada, Dominica, Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Micronesia Fed. States, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Rwanda, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierrra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States of America, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  • French (76.8 million, 200 million L2) France, Canada, Central African Republic, Madagascar, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Niger, Senegal,Mali, Rwanda, Togo, Belgium, Guinea, Chad, Haiti, Burundi, Benin, Switzerland, Congo, Dem. Rep., Congo, Rep., Gabon, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Djibouti, Luxembourg, Vanuatu, Seychelles
  • Hindi (322 million) India
  • Swahili (2 million, 150 million L2) Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Madagascar, Zambia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Mozambique, Burundi, Rwanda, Comoros
  • Spanish (483 million, 75 million L2) Mexico, Spain, Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Bolivia, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Panama, Equatorial Guinea
  • Japanese (128 million) Japan
  • Portuguese (250 million, 24 million L2) Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Russian (150 million, 110 million L2) Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Estonia, Latvia
  • Turkish (75.7 million, 88 million L2) Turkey, Northern Cyprus, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Urdu (68.62 million, 101.58 million L2) Pakistan, India

Languages with fewer than 100,000 native speakers


An alphabetic list of languages with their ISO code

Add a language code (e.g. az for Azerbaijani) to a #CPC hashtag (e.g. #cpc322 for Books, in print) to construct the #tagcoding hashtag for information about a product or service in the language (e.g. #cpc322az for Books in Azerbaijani, in print).


abkhazian-#abk achehnese-#ace acoli-#ach adangme-#ada adhola-#adh adja-#ajg adyghe-#ady afaan-oromo-#gax afaan-oromo-#om afar-#aa afrikaans-#af aguaruna-#agr akan-#ak akuapem-#ak albanian-#sq alemannic-#als algerian-arabic-#arq alur-#alz amharic-#am angika-#anp anii-blo antiguan-creole-#aig antillean-creole-#acf anuak-#anu anyuak-#anu anywa-#anu arabic-#ar arabic-#ary aringa-#luc aringati-#luc armenian-#hy aromanian-#rup assamese-#as assante-twi-#ak assyrian-neo-aramaic-#aii asturian-#ast ateso-#teo avaric-#av awadhi-#awa awa-pit-#kwi aymara-#ay azerbaijani-#az bahamian-creole-#bah bahasa-indonesia-#id bajan-#bjs balinese-#ban baluchi-#bal bambara-#bm banda-#bad bangla-#bn banjarese-#bjn banyumasan-#bms baoulé-#bci bar-#anu bariba-#bba bari-#bfa bashkir-#ba basque-#eu beja-#bej belarusian-#be belizean-creole-#bzj bemba-#bem bengali-#bn bhojpuri-#bho bikol-#bcl bikol-naga-#bcl bini-#bin bislama-#bi blin-#byn bono-#ak bosnian-#bs brahui-#brh braj-#bra breton-#br buginese-#bug buksa-tharu-#tkb bukusu-#bxk bulgarian-#bg bura-#bwr bura-pabir-#bwr burjin-#anu burmese-#my burushaski-#bsk buryat-#bua cameroonian-creole-#wes cañar–loja-#qxr cantonese-#yue cape-verdean-creole-#kea carib-#car catalan-#ca cebuano-#ceb central-atlas-tamazight-#tzm central-bikol-#bcl central-makhuwa-#vmw chadian-arabic-#shu chaldean-neo-aramaic-#cld cham-#cja chamic-#cmc chamorro-#ch chavacano-#cbk chayahuita-#cbt chechen-#ce chewa-#ny chibemba-#bem chichewa-#ny chimborazo-#qug chinambya-#nmq chindau-#ndc chinese-hong-kong-#zhhk chinese-macau-#zhmo chinese-prc-#zhcn chinese-singapore-#zhsg chinese-taiwan-#zhtw chinese-#zh chinkhonde-#nyy chinyanja-#ny chipewyan-#chp chishona-#sn chitonga-#toi chitumbuka-#tum chitwania-tharu-#the choctaw-#cho chol-#ctu chontal-#chf chopi-#cce ch’orti-#caa chuj-#cac chuukese-#chk chuvash-#cv chuwabu-#chw cicopi-#cce cinyungwe-#nyu circassian-west-#ady cisena-#seh citumbuka-#tum ciyawo-#yao copi-#cce corsican-#co cree-#cr creek-#mus (creoles)-#srn crimean-tatar-#crh croatian-#hr cuka-#cuh cuzco-quechua-(quechuan)-#quz czech-#cs dagaare-#dga dagaari-dioula-#dgd dagbani-#dag dagbanli-#dag dagur-#dta dangaura-tharu-#thl dangme-#ada danish-#da dari-#prs datooga-#tcc dazaga-#dzg dendi-#ddn dholuo-#luo dhopadhola-#adh dinka-#din divehi-#dv djerma-#dje dogri-#doi dongxiang-#sce doteli-#dty dotyali-#dty duala-#dua dutch-#nl dyula-#dyu dzongkha-#dz eastern-gorkha-tamang-#tge eastern-tamang-#taj east-limba-#lma ebira-#igb echuwabo-#chw ecizinza-#zin efik-#efi ekegusii-#guz elhomwe-#lon elomwe-#ngl emilian-#egl enga-#enq english-#en erzya-#myv estonian-#et evenki-#evn ewe-#ee ewondo-#ewo fang-#fan fante-#fat faroese-#fo farsi-#fa fijian-#fj fiji-hindi-#hif filipino-#tl finnish-#fi fon-#fon forro-#cri frafra-#gur french-#fr french-guianese-creole-#gcr friulan-#fur fulah-#ff fulani-#ff fulfulde-#ff gaelic-#gd ga-#gaa gagauz-#gag galician-#gl ganda-#lg gan-#gan garifuna-#cab gayo-#gay gen-#gej georgian-#ka german-#de german-#sxu gikuyu-#ki gilaki-#glk gilbertese-#gil gitonga-#toh gondi-#gon gonja-#gjn gorontalo-#gor gourmanché-#gux grebo-#grb greek-#el grenadian-creole-#gcl guarani-#gn guinea-bissau-creole-#pov gujarati-#gu gurene-#gur gurindji-#gue gusii-#guz guyanese-creole-#gyn gwere-#gwr hadiyya-#hdy haitian-creole-#ht hakka-#hak hani-#hni hassanya-#mey hausa-#ha hawaiian-#haw hawaiian-pidgin-english-#hwc hebrew-#he herero-#hz hiligaynon-#hil hindi-#hi hiri-motu-#ho hmong-#hmn ho=#hoc huastec-#hus hungarian-#hu hyam-#jab iban-#iba ibibio-#ibb icelandic-#is icibemba-#bem igala-#igl igbo-#ig ikisimbëtë-kiswahili-#sw ikokolemu-#kdi ikwerre-#ikw ilokano-#ilo ilonggo-#hil imbabura-#qvi indonesian-#id ingush-#inh inuktitut-#iu iraqw-#irk irish-#ga isindebele-#nr isixhosa-#xh isizulu-#zu italian-#it jamaican-patois-#jam jambo-#anu japanese-#ja javanese-#jv kabardian-#kbc kabiye-#kbp kabras-#lkb kabuverdianu-#kea kabyle-#kab kachin-#kac kakwa-#keo kalanga-#kck kalanguya-#kak kallahan-#kak kalmyk-#xal kamba-#kam kanembu-#kbl kannada-#kn kanuri-#kr kaonde-#kqn kapampangan-#pam kaqchikel-#cak karachay-balkar-#krc karakalpak-#kaa karamojong-#kdj karelian-#krl karen-#kar kasem-#xsm kashmiri-#ks kashubian-#csb kassena-#xsm kassonke-#kao kathoriya-tharu-#tkt kazakh-#kk kenyi-#lke khakas-#kjh khalkha-#khk kharia-#khr khasi-#kha khayo-#lko khmer-#km khoekhoegowab-#naq khoekhoe-#naq k’iche’an-#guq kiche-#quc kidawida-#dav kiga-#cgg kigiryama-#nyf kikamba-#kam kikongo-#kg kikongo-ya-leta-#ktu kikuyu-#ki kimbundu-#kmb kîmîîrû-#mer kinyarwanda-#rw kirundi-#rn kiswahili-#sw kituba-#ktu kituba-#mkw kochila-tharu-#thq kokola-#kzn komi-#kv kongo-#kg konjo-#koo konkani-#kok konkomba-#xon konso-#kxc korean-#ko korku-#kfq koyraboro-senni-#ses kpelle-#kpe krio-#kri kumam-#kdi kumyk-#kum kupsabiny-#kpz kurdish-central-#ckb kurdish-#ku kurdish-northern-#kmr kurdish-southern-#sdh kurmanji-#kmr kurukh-#kru kuteb-#kub kwangali-#kwn kwanyama-#kj kyrgyz-#ky ladino-#lad lak-#lbe lakota-dida-#dic lámnso-#lns lango-#laj lao-#lo 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