A reference model is an abstract framework or domain-specific model representing or consisting of a complete interlinked set of clearly defined concepts (model-elements) of some environment.

A reference model should encourage clear communication and should support the development of solutions for its environment.

"A reference model is not directly tied to any standards, technologies or other concrete implementation details, but it does seek to provide a common semantics that can be used unambiguously across and between different implementations."[1]

1. "OASIS SOA Reference Model". OASIS SOA Technical Committee. Retrieved 2019-09-15.
2. Reference model, Wikipedia.